Who is responsible for seeking permission and for paying a fee?
The one who reproduces and publishes the work is accountable. This is almost always the publisher of the medium in which the work is published. Even if the publisher has an agreement with a third party that a work will be provided by that third party, the publisher remains responsible. This accountability cannot be transferred to a printer, an artist or other party (e.g., a client). It is possible, however, that more than one person may publish and/or reproduce at the same time. In the case of ads in a magazine, for example, both the publisher and the advertiser are liable.